What Everyone should know

The team at Clínica Espregueira | FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence and Academia Clínicas Espregueira have a number of books published, one of the most recent being "Injuries and Health problems in Football".

This book published by Springer, among the most prestigious medical publishers in the world, reflects on the recent changes and advances in Football medicine, as well as the most frequent and/or most serious injuries and health conditions in this sport, having counted with the collaboration of prestigious experts in the field, selected from FIFA, UEFA, ISAKOS and ESSKA.

Prof. João Espregueira-Mendes, Clinical Director of Clínica Espregueira | FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, was the main editor of this book.

Clínica Espregueira | FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence and Academia Clínicas Espregueira provided a significant contribution to this book, having assured the technical and scientific writing of 24 chapters:


The chapter "Injury of Ankle Ligaments"

Written by Renato Andrade, Hélder Pereira, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, João Espregueira-Mendes and C. Niek van Dijk, addresses research on the mechanisms of sprain and chronic ankle instability.

The chapter "Meniscal Lesions: From Basic Science to Clinical Management in Footballers"

Written by Ibrahim Fatih Cengiz, Hélder Pereira, Joana Silva-Correia, Pedro L. Ripoll, João Espregueira-Mendes, Rodrigo Kaz, J. Miguel Oliveira and Rui Luís Reis. This chapter reflects from the pathophysiology and mechanisms of meniscal injuries to the various surgical treatments and expected outcomes for and in the return to sports.

The chapter "Injury of Knee Ligaments"

Written by Frantzeska Zampeli, Anastasios Georgoulis, Freddie Fu, Romain Seil, Jim-Dimitris Georgoulis and João Espregueira-Mendes. This chapter summarizes the main ligament injuries of the knee joint, reflecting on injury mechanisms, symptomatology, biomechanics, and surgical treatment.

The chapter "Patellofemoral Pain and Instability"

Written by Ana Leal, Paulo Flores, Filipe Silva, Elizabeth Arendt, Philippe Neyret and João Espregueira-Mendes. This chapter highlights the importance of the patellofemoral joint in knee biomechanics, reviewing the epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of the most frequent dysfunctions, as well as the type of treatment and rehabilitation processes that should be adopted.

The chapter "Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Knee in Football Players"

Written by Alberto Gobbi, João Espregueira-Mendes, Mustafa Karahan, Moisés Cohen and Graeme P. Whyte. This chapter portrays the framework of research on osteochondritis dissecans of the knee, common among young athletes. A brief review is given on etiopathologic and epidemiologic factors, clinical and imaging pictures, and weighing between conservative treatment and/or surgical treatment.

The chapter "Surgical Treatment of Muscle Injuries"

Written by Jordi Puigdellívol, Ricard Pruna, Luis Til, Daniel Medina, Pedro Luís Ripoll and João Espregueira-Mendes. This chapter presents the muscle injuries of the main muscles of the knee joint and with the highest incidence of injury in football, the hamstrings and rectus femoris, as well as, a reflection on chronic muscle injuries. It seeks to guide treatment protocols and post-surgical rehabilitation of this type of injury.

The chapter "Stress Fractures: Current Concepts"

Written by João Espregueira-Mendes, André Costa, Pedro Pessoa and C. Niek Van Dijk. This chapter talks about an injury that is difficult to diagnose and treat due to the particularities of the sport and the bio-psycho-social characteristics of football players. It reflects on conservative and surgical treatments for stress fractures and points to the prevention of this type of injury as the way forward.

The chapter "Injury Prevention Programs - The FIFA 11+"

Written by Nuno Pais, Paulo Beckert, Henrique Jones, and João Espregueira-Mendes. This chapter is the starting point for reflection and discussion on prevention and rehabilitation in the return to competition. It explains and details the structure of this FIFA prevention program and reports scientific evidence on the measured preventive effects.

The chapter "Hyaluronic Acid, PRP/Growth Factors, and Stem Cells in the Treatment of Osteochondral Lesions"

Written by Diana Ribeiro Pereira, Joana Silva-Correia, Elisaveta Kon, Hélder Pereira, Piero Volpi, João Espregueira-Mendes, Rui L. Reis and J. Miguel Oliveira. This chapter explores the scientific evidence on treatments for osteochondral lesions through orthobiologic procedures that contribute to tissue repair and regeneration.


In addition to the chapters mentioned above, this book had the participation of Alberto Monteiro, Ana Margarida Fernandes, André Sarmento, Nuno Loureiro, Pedro Vendeira, Renato Andrade, Ricardo Vidal, Rogério Pereira and Sérgio Rodrigues Gomes, collaborators at the time of publication of Academia Clínicas Espregueira and Clínica Espregueira | FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence:

Part II

Chapter #7 "Basics on Knee (dys)Function"

Chapter #9 "Imaging in Football Lesions"

Part III

Chapter #10 "Injury of Ankle Ligaments"

Part V

Chapter #19 "Groin Pain

Chapter #20 "Femuroacetabular impingement"

Part VI

Chapter #23 "Low Back Pain"

Part VII

Chapter #28 "Acute Fractures of the upper limb"

Chapter #30 "Shoulder instability"

Chapter #31 "Overuse injuries of the Goalkeeper"


Chapter #32 "Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Prevention"

Chapter #37 "Criteria in Return to Football"

Part IX

Chapter #38 "Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Prevention"

Part X

Chapter #42 "Apophysitis"

Part XI

Chapter #44 "Preseason Evaluation"


Chapter #56 "Sex before Games"

These writings assume the updating and provision of content with the main purpose of implementing Good Practices and the Latest Evidence, in this particular case and above all, in the field of sports physiotherapy and football medicine. Many of the contents covered in this book are developed in the courses of Academia Clínicas Espregueira and applied in clinical practice at Clínica Espregueira | FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence.